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Comunismo e fascismo

por Samuel de Paiva Pires, em 11.06.16

roger scruton.jpg

 

Roger Scruton, Fools, Frauds and Firebrands:

It is testimony to the success of communist propaganda that it has been able to persuade so many people that fascism and communism are polar opposites and that there is a single scale of political ideology stretching from ‘far left’ to ‘far right’. Thus, while communism is on the far left, it is simply one further stage along a road that all intellectuals must go in order not to be contaminated by the true evil of our times, which is fascism.

It is perhaps easier for an English writer than it is for an Italian to see through that nonsense, and to perceive what it is designed to conceal: the deep structural similarity between communism and fascism, both as theory and as practice, and their common antagonism to parliamentary and constitutional forms of government. Even if we accept the – highly fortuitous – identification of National Socialism and Italian Fascism, to speak of either as the true political opposite of communism is to betray the most superficial understanding of modern history. In truth there is an opposite of all the ‘isms’, and that is negotiated politics, without an ‘ism’ and without a goal other than the peaceful coexistence of rivals.

Communism, like fascism, involved the attempt to create a mass popular movement and a state bound together under the rule of a single party, in which there will be total cohesion around a common goal. It involved the elimination of opposition, by whatever means, and the replacement of ordered dispute between parties by clandestine ‘discussion’ within the single ruling elite. It involved taking control – ‘in the name of the people’ – of the means of communication and education, and instilling a principle of command throughout the economy.

Both movements regarded law as optional and constitutional constraints as irrelevant – for both were essentially revolutionary, led from above by an ‘iron discipline’. Both aimed to achieve a new kind of social order, unmediated by institutions, displaying an immediate and fraternal cohesiveness. And in pursuit of this ideal association – called a fascio by nineteenth-century Italian socialists – each movement created a form of militar government, involving the total mobilization of the entire populace, which could no longer do even the most peaceful-seeming things except in a spirit of war, and with an officer in charge. This mobilization was put on comic display, in the great parades and festivals that the two ideologies created for their own glorification.

Of course there are diferences. Fascist governments have sometimes come to power by democratic election, whereas communist governments have always relied on a coup d’état. And the public ideology of communism is one of equality and emancipation, while that of fascism emphasizes distinction and triumph. But the two systems resemble each other in all other aspects, and not least in their public art, which displays the same kind of bombast and kitsch – the same attempt to change reality by shouting at the top of the voice.

It will be said that communism is perhaps like that in practice, but only because the practice has betrayed the theory. Of course, the same could be said of fascism; but it has been an important leftist strategy, and a major component of Soviet post-war propaganda, to contrast a purely theoretical communism with ‘actually existing’ fascism, in other words to contrast a promised heaven with a real hell. This does not merely help with the recruitment of supporters: it reinforces the habit of thinking in dichotomies, of representing every choice as an either/or, of inducing the thought that the issue is simply one of for or against.

publicado às 19:22


1 comentário

Sem imagem de perfil

De João José Horta Nobre a 11.06.2016 às 19:43

http://historiamaximus.blogspot.pt/2016/05/mas-isto-e-tao-simples.html

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